The racial pride which caused the Saracen to look down on conquered nations, his failure to recognise that mere justice never won the affection of subject peoples, that to achieve this something more was needed ? the sympathy of a Mamun, the large-heartedness of a Nasir ? that neither nations nor individuals lose by generous, courteous, and liberal dealing ? the encouragement in later times of intrigue, sycophancy, and unworthiness with such disastrous results to the Arab’s power and greatness ? may all be ascribed to one cause. History, which comes down to us rich with the spoils of time, had no lesson for him. The Saracen’s genius for government was intuitive, inborn, self-taught ? not acquired. With an overweening sense of pride in his race and creed, for which allowance can easily be made, he stalked through the world feeling, although not pro claiming, that he was an Arab citizen, a member of a great and powerful commonwealth. There was no critical Schopenhauer to laugh him to scorn. Even the tactless treatment of the barbarian tribesmen of Northern Spain must be ascribed to the same cause. The great Hzijib could weep that the lesson of conciliation came too late.